Sunday, May 24, 2020
It is a fact that people learn differently. Some people learn by seeing, some by hearing, some by doing, and then others learn from a combination of these. For many decades psychologists, theorists, and scientists have all sought to prove to their peers, society and the world that not only do people learn differently but children and adult learning differ also. Learning theories are conceptualized frameworks which describe how individuals absorb, process and retain information. Behaviorists such as John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, Edward L. Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov and Edwin R. Guthrie believed that all learners were passive in nature and only responded to external stimuli. Behaviorism, as explored by the before mentioned, is a biological basis of learning and focuses exclusively on observable behaviors. This includes ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of connectionism, PavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s classical conditioning and the well-known conditioning theory from SkinnerÃ¢â¬âthe operant conditioning model. However, many researchers did not like the one-size fits all explanation of behaviorism. Cognitivism grew in response to behaviorism in an effort to better understand the mental processes behind learning. This challenged behaviorism with the idea that learning is the process of connecting symbols in a meaningful way; thus all knowledge is stored cognitively as symbols. Still, cognitivism didnÃ¢â¬â¢t account for individuality and the input-output model was seen as very mechanic. The social cognitive theory was developedShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Behaviorism And Operant Conditioning895 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages B.F Skinner Renowned American psychologist B.F. Skinner, well known for his theory on behaviorism and operant conditioning. He was the most influential 20th - century psychologist. His works includes Ã¢â¬Å"The Behavior of OrganismsÃ¢â¬ (1938) which was about the results in his experiment with operant conditioning, and a novel based on his theories Ã¢â¬Å"WaldenÃ¢â¬ (1948). He was not only a psychologist he was a behaviorist, teacher, author, inventor, and a social philosopher as well. Born as Burrhus FredericRead MoreThe Theory Of Behaviorism Operant Conditioning993 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAbstract Behaviorism takes on many forms, B.F. Skinner liked to call his form of behaviorism Operant Conditioning. He would rather study observable behavior rather than internal mental events. He felt that was the best way to see how one may react to a particular stimuli and how one would handle the situation. Skinner believed that if a behavior is reinforced the behavior will continue. This had a two sided effect. If the bad behavior was reinforced the bad behavior would continue. Such as the goodRead MoreWatson, Skinner and Tolman Essay1627 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesamong them based on their theories and perspectives. Each theory and concept is like steps on a ladder that define prior events that lead to current day theory known as modern day psychology. Respectfully John B. Watson is the founder of behaviorism and B.F. Skinner is the founder of radical behaviorism, but Edward Tolman marches to a different drum and is known for developing cognitive theory. Herein we will compare and contr ast each theory and formulate how each theory is imperative in 2012.Read MoreUpchurch Shawna EDUC 205 Learning Theory Paper1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Shawna Upchurch EDUC 205 Learning Theories Paper August 14, 2014 Behaviorism Behaviorism is one of the most used theories in education. Due to it can fit in both a classroom setting and at home. Educators had sought out the reason why for many years. But due to each child learns a different way so should the educator. Behaviorism was study by many great Psychologists over the years. Just to name some that had done work and publish books on the subject are, John Watson, Ivan Pavlov, Clark HullRead MoreBehaviorism Theory Of Classical Conditioning1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Behaviorism is a theory that behavior can be altered through conditioning. Behaviorism does not focus on thoughts or feelings of the subject, just their behavior. Ivan Pavlov was a major part of this movement of behaviorism with his theory of classical conditioning. The most important part of classical conditioning is that it is done through repetition. In his experiment he began with noticing that an unconditioned stimulus like dog food causes an unconditioned response like salivation. He t henRead MoreBehaviorism s Theory Of Psychology983 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesClassification Behaviorism claims that Ã¢â¬Å"consciousnessÃ¢â¬ is neither defined nor unable concept; that it is merely another word for the Ã¢â¬Å"soulÃ¢â¬ of more ancient time (Watson, 1970). However, behaviorism holds the subject matter of human psychology it focus on the behavior or activities of the human being. Etymology The word behaviorism originates from the Middle French word behavior, meaning the observable activity in human and animal. This term was coined in 1913 by the United States psychologistRead MoreWhy Do We Do Your Regular Schedules?1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTodd Donerson 5/9/2015 Intr. Philosophy Main project part 2 Behaviorism Why do we do the things we do in our regular schedules? Do we do it on impulse, is it something we daily choose to do, or are we simply conditioned to a point where it becomes natural? These are the questions behaviorists think about when studying other people. I believe this is the right theory because I believe that everything a person does, why they think they way they do, why they do the things they do is becauseRead MoreBehaviorism As A Psychological Theory Of Human Development942 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Behaviorism at its finest Life circumstances or events can predict the way that most people behave or handle situation. It is also believed that ones behavior is effected based on the positive or negative reinforcements received all throughout a persons life. Behaviorism is a psychological theory of human development that posits that humans can be trained, or conditioned, to respond in specific ways to specific stimuli and that given the correct stimuli, personalities and behaviors of individualsRead MoreBehaviorism And Social Learning Theory1531 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Behaviorism and social learning theory are examples of two mechanistic theories that focus on explaining childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Social learning theory emphasizes observational learning and imitation. On the other hand, behaviorism is rooted in focusing on how the environment impacts development. The environment shapes the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development as the child strives to adapt to the environment. Both theories deal with explaining behavior and consist of similarities, but are composed of different elementsRead MoreBehaviorism The Developmental Grand Theory1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBehaviorism the Developmental Grand Theory Hillary C. Wade Cisco College Author Note This paper was prepared for Psychology 2314 Lifespan Growth and Development, Fall Mini-Semester, Taught by Linda Grant. Abstract Out of all the theories of lifespan development, behaviorism has proven to be the most efficient explanation of how we grow and adapt with our environments. Also known as the learning theory, it was developed by John B. Watson, and with major contributions from B.F. Skinner and Ivan Pavlov
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3564 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Philosophy Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? Immanuel Kant is responsible for introducing the term Ã¢â¬Å"transcendentalÃ¢â¬ to the philosophical discussion. By doing this it was his goal to reject everything that Hume had to say. His argument proved that subjects like mathematics and philosophy truly existed. One of his main arguments was the idea that gaining knowledge was possible. Without this idea of knowledge there would be no reason for a discussion. Since we know that knowledge is possible we must ask how it got this way. According to Kant, one of the conditions of knowledge is the Transcendental Aesthetic, which is the mind placing sense experience into a space and time sequence. From this we understand that the transcendental argument is an abundance of substances situated in space and time, with a relationship to one another. We cannot gain this knowledge from sense-experience (Hume) or from rational deduction alone (Leibniz), but showing how knowledge exist and how it is possib le. Kant makes the claim in the Transcendental Aesthetics that space and time are Ã¢â¬Ëpure a priori intuitions. To fully understand what this means we must define what an intuition is. According to Kant an intuition is raw data of sensory experience. So basically intuitions are produced in the mind. Kant is saying that space and time are things that are produced in the mind and given before experience. Space is a necessary a priori representation, which underlies all outer intuitions. It does not represent something in itself or any other relationship. Space is only a form of appearance represented outside of the mind. Time, on the other hand, is a necessary representation that underlies all intuitions and therefore is a priori. Since time is only one dimensional there is no way that we could access it quickly. We know that space and time are both a priori because of all of our experiences. Kant also claims that space and time are Ã¢â¬Ëempirically real but transce ndentally ideal. When Kant says that space is Ã¢â¬Ëempirically real he is not presupposing external objects. There is no way for space to be an empirical concept. We cannot just come up with the idea of space; a representation of space must be presupposed. When we experiences things outside ourselves it is only possible through representation. For space and time to be Ã¢â¬Ëtranscendentally ideal Kant is basically saying that Ã¢â¬Å"they are not to be identified with anything beyond or anything that transcends the bounds of possible experience or the a priori subjective conditions that make such experience possible in the first place.Ã¢â¬ Before Kant begins to explain the transcendental aesthetic he claims in the introduction that mathematical knowledge is synthetic a priori. This statement is based on Kants Copernican Revelation. According to Kant, time and space taken together are the pure forms of all sensible intuitions. This is our way of creating a priori synt hetic propositions. These propositions are limited in how they appear to us but not present within themselves. We have a priori knowledge of synthetic judgements. According to Kant our judgements/statements can either be analytic or synthetic. An analytic judgement would be where the concept of the predicate is part of the concept of the subject. If it is denied then there would be a contradiction. A synthetic judgement, on the other hand, is where the concept of the predicate is not contained in the concept of the subject. So, if we denied it then there would be no contradiction involved. An analytical judgement would be Ã¢â¬Å"all bachelors are unmarriedÃ¢â¬ . The concept of bachelor is defined as being unmarried. In analyzing this word we would say that it is an unmarried male adult. When we analyze concepts the parts come out. Therefore, when broken down our predicate concept of Ã¢â¬Å"unmarriedÃ¢â¬ is shown. The mind is capable of finding this concept without go ing outside and experiencing it. If we tried to deny this statement there would have to be a contradiction, therefore making it false. An example of a synthetic judgement would be Ã¢â¬Å"the sun will rise tomorrowÃ¢â¬ . When we say this it is our way of taking two separate and distinct ideas and putting them together. There could be no contradiction in this statement because we can image that something like this could occur. In Section I of the Transcendental Aesthetic, Kant gives four arguments for the conclusion that space is empirically real but transcendentally ideal. As we know space is not an empirical concept. We cannot physically derive the idea of space. The only way that we can receive these outer experiences is through our representation. When it comes to space we cannot represent the absence of space but we can imagine space as being empty. In order to be given any content in our experience we must presuppose space. Knowing that space is not a general conc ept we can only discuss one space at a time and if we speak of diverse spaces we only mean parts of the same space. The parts cannot decipher the bigger space but only what is contained in it. Since space is seen as only one, the concept of spaces depends on a limit. Concepts containing an unlimited amount of representations cannot be contained within itself. All parts of space are given to us at once. Therefore it is an a priori intuition not a concept. All of the previous information is Kants way of showing that the synthetic a priori knowledge of mathematics is possible. As we know mathematics is a product of reason but is still synthetic. But how can this knowledge be a priori? The concepts of math are seen a priori in pure intuitions. This just means that the intuition is not empirical. If you do not have intuitions then mathematics would not even be a concept. Philosophy, on the other hand, progresses only through concepts. Philosophy uses intuitions to show necessa ry truths but those truths cannot be a consequence of intuitions. The possibility of math only occurs because it is based on pure intuitions which only occur when concepts are constructed. Like pure intuition, empirical intuition, allows us to broaden our concept of an object by providing us with new predicates. With pure intuitions we get necessary a priori truths. Synthetic a priori knowledge in mathematics is possible only if it refers to objects of the senses. The form of appearances comes from time and space which is assumed by pure intuitions. Doubting that space and time do not belong to the object in themselves would cause us to not have an explanation about a priori intuitions of objects. We have to come to the conclusion that in space and time objects are only appearances entailing that it is the form of appearances that we can represent a priori. Concluding that a synthetic a priori knowledge of mathematics would be possible. What is the Transcendental Deducti on? This is the way concepts can relate a priori to objects. Kant says, Ã¢â¬Å"If each representation were completely foreign to every other, standing apart in isolation, no such thing as knowledge would ever arise. For knowledge is [essentially] a whole in which representations stand compared and connected.Ã¢â¬ Kant lays out a threefold synthesis about experience: a synthesis of apprehension in intuition, a synthesis of reproduction in imagination, and a synthesis of recognition in a concept. We should not divide these steps into one but they should all be intertwined as one. So what we see must occur consecutively. Therefore our idea of the Synthetic Unity of Apperception comes into play. This is where every possible content of experience must be accompanied by Ã¢â¬Å"I thinkÃ¢â¬ . Everything in your mental state should be able to be accompanied by Ã¢â¬Å"I thinkÃ¢â¬ if not then it will not matter at all. Ã¢â¬Å"I thinkÃ¢â¬ is not something that consists in sensibility. It is an act of spontaneity. It precedes all possible experience. The unity of this particular manifold is not given in experience but prior to it. Thinking substances can only perceive what is going on inside as perception goes on at all times. This is where our awareness of a manifold comes into play. We are aware of one thing after another. Each impression is different from one other. We must say that these impressions are mine. Basically accompanying them with the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"I thinkÃ¢â¬ . As for the Transcendental Unity of Apperception we are never aware of ourselves as the thinker but just the intuitions. All of our experiences must be subjective to this combination of things. I must actively pull them all together as them being a part of my experience. The only way that I can be aware of this Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ is if I am able to pull together all of these representations. In this we can see the idea of objective unification. There is a connection betwe en transcendental unity of apperception and objective unification. When we speak of objective unification we believe that there is a right way to put things together. This concept basically comes from our categorical synthesis which involves a priori concepts. With the categorical synthesis it is our way of putting together intuitions in a category. We must be able to make a judgement. For example we must be able to say this is how things seem to me because of pass experiences. By saying this it would be a near judgement. Whereas a judgement would be us just saying this is how things are. To make a judgement is to say this is how things are out there; how they objectively are rather than how they appear subjectively. For a manifold to be complete the sensible intuitions have to be subject to the category. This is how we can have a categorical synthesis. We cannot have sense impression unless I can bring them together under a unified manifold by knowing they are objective r ather than subjective. Any intuition that we have must be subject to the category. We could not have an awareness of one event coming before the other unless there is a manifold of Ã¢â¬Å"myÃ¢â¬ . Appearances are not objects in themselves. They are not just representations; they are separate intuitions therefore having no connection between them. Imagination is what connects the manifold of sensible intuitions. Nature is just appearance. Anything that appears to us must conform to law. We have to complete this synthesis in order to have experiences. It is presupposed that there is an objective to all of my experiences. Without it there would be no way to put them together and I would not be aware of them as experiences. Both the threefold synthesis and a transcendental unity of apperception are necessary to have ordered experience for any sort of theory of experience. 3. Kant defines Idealism as Ã¢â¬Å"the theory which declares the existence of objects in space outside us either to be merely doubtful and indemonstrable or to be false and impossible.Ã¢â¬ Since I am conscious of my own existence, objects in space must also exist. Having knowledge, the only thing that we are aware of is our representations. These representations are only achievable through an object outside of me not by the representation of that object. Therefore I exist in time because I am capable of perceiving actual things outside of me. I am conscious of my existence in the same frame of time as I am conscious of those objects existing outside of me. When referring to idealism it is believed that our immediate experience is inner experience and from this particular experience we only receive outer objects. It is quite possible that these representations come from within. When considering the representation Ã¢â¬Å"I amÃ¢â¬ a subject is included. We do not know what that subject is though. So according to circumstances we do not have any experience of that subje ct. To fully understand the knowledge of the subject we must have intuition. But the only way to receive this inner experience is through our outer experience. To have the existence of outer objects we must be conscious of ourselves. This does not mean that our representation of them involve true existence because they could also be produced by our imagination. The representations of our outer objects come from our perceptions. According to Kant Ã¢â¬Å"all that we have here sought to prove is that inner experience in general is possible only through outer experience in general. Whether this is or that supposed experience be not purely imaginary, must be ascertained from its special determinations, and through it congruence with the criteria of all real experience.Ã¢â¬ According to Descartes, we really know only what is in our own consciousness. We are instantly and honestly aware of only our own states of mind. What we believe of the whole external world is merely a n idea or picture in our minds. Therefore, it is possible to doubt the actuality of the external world as being composed of real objects. Ã¢â¬Å"I think, therefore I amÃ¢â¬ is the only idea that cannot be doubted. This is because self-consciousness and thinking are the only objects that can be experienced in the real sense. Descartes presented the main problem of philosophical idealism which was an awareness of the difference between the world as a mental picture and that of a system of external objects. Lockes theory, on the other hand, encompasses the mind as the origin for modern conceptions of identity and the self. Locke was the first philosopher to define the self through a continuation of Ã¢â¬Å"consciousness.Ã¢â¬ He also speculated that the mind was a Ã¢â¬Å"blank slateÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"tabula rasaÃ¢â¬ . These two strategies are very different from the above strategies of Kant. At the beginning of early modern philosophy, in Descartes, we seem to see our f amiliar world slipping away. At the culmination of early modern philosophy, in Kant, however, we get our familiar world back through at a price. In the following essay I will discuss this process, beginning with Descartes, ending with Kant, and discussing two of the four philosophers we have examined this semester. In Meditation One Descartes gives three separate arguments. From these particular arguments one can conclude that we cannot claim to know with certainty anything about the world around us. Everything might seem probable but in reality that does not mean that it lacks doubt. If we can never be certain how can we know anything. This is the main reason for Descartes bring this issue up. Basically his entire argument is based on Scepticism. Scepticism is very important and is seen as an attempt for our knowledge and understanding of the world. It is really hard to doubt that someone really exists but there is no way that one could get rid of the idea of scepticism The one thing that we know is that Descartes does not just randomly doubt everything. He provides very concrete reasons for the things that he doubts. As he sets up this doubt he has to be very rational about it. If he does not then his argument is not going to work. The KK thesis that Descartes uses is to show how these arguments work. The KK thesis follows: if a knows that p, then a knows that a knows that p. basically this means that if I know that there is snow outside then I know that I know that there is snow outside. The problem with this argument is that if we are not sure about our senses then there is no way that we can be sure about the knowledge that we possess. In making this thesis work one must have a strong understanding of what Ã¢â¬Å"knowingÃ¢â¬ really means. But there is no way that one can actually have this understanding. One must have self-knowledge or basically one must really know himself/herself. Therefore if you do not have that notion of self t hen you do not possess any knowledge. As we can see the KK thesis works in favour with what Descartes is saying in all of his arguments. The only problem is that he does not believe that his argument about God is that strong. He feels that if there is an Omnipotent God then there is no way that he could ever deceive us. There is no way that he could be all knowing and make us doubt the things that we do. On the other hand there is no way that there could be no God because our senses had to be created by someone. Therefore there must have been an evil demon that has deceived us. But since he doubts everything then he is not mislead into the false believing of a demon. So, in a later meditation he proves that there is a God and that he is not a deceiver. We turn to Liebniz and we continue to see the world slipping away as he discusses the monad. In looking at the things that Liebniz said it is believed that monads (Entelechy) are not physical or mental but biological. The refore, the ultimate cogs of the world are biological elements or Entelechies. In doing this there is no distinction made between inanimate and animate objects, which would make everything, animate. If these monads are really just biological there is no way that they can make changes in each other. The only way for this to happen is if God caused these changes to happen. The reason that monads cannot bring changes in bodies is because that is not what they were programmed to do. They were created so that compound substances could be made. The biological nature of Monads makes their essential qualities to be apperception and appetition and even motion itself. Their relation is more of a final cause than an efficient cause. This is why he considers final causes as the principle of efficient causes and gives priority to final causes. Therefore, this made it hard for a monad to bring change in a body. As we can see, God is the unifier of the monads but he also brings harmony. Leibniz came to the conclusion, by using metaphysics and the nature of monads, that God was the ultimate monad and the Creator of this world. We are now at a point where nothing is the same. We believed in one thing but now it is completely different. The first problem that Berkeley would have with this objection is the fact that ideas cannot exist if they are not perceived. If we cannot perceive of the idea then there is no way that we can truly conceive of the thing. For example if I do not have the idea of the sky being blue then there is no way that I am going to walk outside, look up, and say the sky is blue. I do not have the concept of blue in the first place. He says that we cannot say what reality is like without using language. You cannot use a word well if you do not know the meaning of that word. When we are describing an idea it is based on what we feel. There is no way that I can say what I mean if I have no conception of the word. According to Berkeley, i deas do not do anything so it cannot cause anything to happen. The mind is active; it is able to perceive of new ideas by imaging. The one thing that the mind cannot do is actually form ideas. It can perceive the ideas but cannot come up with ideas that will resemble the mind when it does this. So, therefore there is no way that we can perceive of any sensible things without knowing what the words mean in the first place. If you do not know what the words mean then you cannot come up with ideas and without the ideas you cannot perceive anything. As we continue we start to see some changes. Berkeley is bring us closer to what Kant has to say. We finally come to Kant and we get our world back through pieces. The way that we do this is through the Kantian price. The Kantian price is how we get our world back through space and time. We have to realize that we would not exist without a world of space and time. Space is not empirical; the idea of space cannot be conceived of. S pace is of only one thing. It cannot be talked about in parts because parts are only contained in the overall bigger picture. All space is, is a form of all appearances of the outer sense. As for time it is a little different. Time is not something, which exist of itself. An intuition taking place within is what time is. Time cannot be removed from appearance even though it does not have to actually possess appearances. These appearances can come and go but time cannot be taken away. It is only suitable in conjunction to appearance not for objects preoccupied or taken in general. Time and space are the pure forms of all sensible intuition and so are what make a priori synthetic propositions possible. Therefore, bring back our world through a price. We get a chance to see how Kant breaks down what everyone is saying and shows us how the world is not really slipping away but it is just seen in a different way. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Transcendental Knowledge Philosophy" essay for you Create order
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
It was a maddening rush, that crisp fall morning, but we were finally ready to go. I was supposed to be at State College at 10:00 for the tour, and it was already eight. My parents hurriedly loaded their luggage into the van as I rushed around the house gathering last minute necessities. I dashed downstairs to my room and gathered my coat and my duffel bag, and glanced at my dresser making sure I was leaving nothing behind and all the rush seemed to disappear. I stood there as if in a trance just remembering all the stories behind the objects and clutter accumulated on it. I began to think back to all the good times I have had with my family and friends each moment represented by a different and somewhat odd object. The palm leaf thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦After we disappeared around the corner of the salad bar, Johanna decided that she too wanted some ice cream. Mom quickly pointed her in the right direction and she hurriedly trotted after us. When Jami and I got back to the table, Mom asked us if Johanna got some ice cream. I told her that I didnt know, that she didnt come with us. Mom freaked out and we all abandoned our dessert to go search for Johanna. We looked all over the buffet area and decided that she definitely wasnt there anymore, so we expanded our search to the rest of the hotel. It wasnt long before Dad found her at the entrance of the hotel. When he found her, she was at the ice cream store next to the front desk with her nose and sticky hands pressed against the glass doors once again. When our four-day vacation was over and we left the hotel, we all glanced back to the ice cream parlor and saw the tiny handprints scattered on the glass. Our family grew that day and we will never forget how close we all felt when we found her. I thought of the silver and brown change among the miscellaneous items scattered on the dresser. I thought of how, in a way, it was like our life-- always going a hundred different directions and doing a million different things. All my sisters have dance, gymnastics, piano lessons, harp lessons, Math Counts, etc., and my mom is always able to go all the differentShow MoreRelatedChildhood Memories2400 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesChildhood is the most innocent phase of mans life. With the passage of time, it fades into adolescence and adulthood. Yet the sweet memories of childhood linger on. My childhood recollections are those of a sheltered and carefree life, nurtured with love and concern. As I was the first child in the family, everybody doted on me. My funny lisping, my innocent mischief and my inane talk-everything was a source of immense pleasure to them. There was never a word of reproach or censure against meRead MoreA Rose For Boland s Fond Memory 1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEavan BolandÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËFond MemoryÃ¢â¬â¢ is a poem which is used to explore the poets past, acting as a vehicle for returning to the days of her childhood. This poem is written with the intent to confront a past memory and creates a relationship between Boland as a young girl and the woman she was when she wrote this. Through the use of literary techniques we become a part of the journey that Boland undertakes in order to go back to her child self and speak about her memories. This is a very personal poem asRead MoreEssay about Childhood 681 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesChildhood is present in every adult. The immaturity, the innocence, the naivety, the thirst for approval, is craved in everyone around you. Memories of childhood can be represented i n many ways: a blanket, stuffed animal, rattle, song, or maybe even a movie. We can cling to these things for support in times of need, or just to recall fond memories of a simpler, and in most cases happier time. As our lives change around us, and we change to adapt to our lives we recall these items. We return toRead More`` Piano `` By D. H. Lawrence And Traveling Through The Dark By William Stafford1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand move the dead deer from the side of the road, but in his heart, he has great compassion for the unborn fawn. In contrast, Lawrence establishes mood by having the narrator reminisce about his childhood. Ã¢â¬Å"PianoÃ¢â¬ is a poem which focuses on the conflict between present experiences and memories from childhood. Therefore the two works offer very different tones. Ã¢â¬Å"PianoÃ¢â¬ has a nostalgic, sentimental and melancholic tone on the other hand, Ã¢â¬Å"Traveling through the DarkÃ¢â¬ provides a feeling of sympathy, sorrowRead More`` Piano `` By D. H. Lawrence And Traveling Through The Dark1284 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmove the dead deer from the side of the road, but in his heart, he has great compassion for the unborn fawn. On the other hand, Lawrence establishes mood by having the narrator reminisce about his childhood. Ã¢â¬Å"PianoÃ¢â¬ is a poem which focuses on the conflict between present experiences and memories from childhood. Therefore the two works offer very different tones. Ã¢â¬Å"PianoÃ¢â¬ has a nostalgic, sentimental and melancholic tone on the other hand, Ã¢â¬Å"Traveling through the DarkÃ¢â¬ provides a feeling of sympathy, sorrowRead MoreAnalysis Of My Papas Waltz By Theodore Roethke1062 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfather. A relationship in which, notably, causes harm to the author. However, through all the nights Roethke spent in pain and in horror, his love for his father still exists. While many people believe that the author tells a lovely story of a fond memory with his father, it is not possible th at the use of negative imagery and negative diction does not play a role in the story told. Ã¢â¬Å"My PapaÃ¢â¬â¢s WaltzÃ¢â¬ tells the story of a Ã¢â¬Å"small boyÃ¢â¬ who is abused by his father. After examining the context of thisRead More`` Piano `` By D. H. Lawrence And Traveling Through The Dark By William Stafford1224 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand move the dead deer from the side of the road, but in his heart, he has great compassion for the unborn fawn. In contrast, Lawrence establishes mood by having the narrator reminisce about his childhood. Ã¢â¬Å"PianoÃ¢â¬ is a poem which focuses on the conflict between present experiences and memories from childhood. Therefore the two works offer very different tones. Ã¢â¬Å"PianoÃ¢â¬ has a nostalgic, sentimental and melancholic tone on the other hand, Ã¢â¬Å"Traveling through the DarkÃ¢â¬ provides a feeling of sympathy, sorrowRead MoreAnalysis Of My Papas Waltz By Theodore Roethke1059 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfather. A relationship in which, notably, causes harm to the author. However, through all the nights Roethke spent in pain and in horror, his love for his father still exists. While many people believe that the author tel ls a lovely story of a fond memory with his father, it is not possible that the use of negative imagery and negative diction does not play a role in the story told. Ã¢â¬Å"My PapaÃ¢â¬â¢s WaltzÃ¢â¬ tells the story of a Ã¢â¬Å"small boyÃ¢â¬ who is abused by his father. After examining the context of thisRead MoreDescribing My Childhood Home830 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesQuincy, Mass is where my childhood home stands Homes are places that people can go to for warmth, memories and comfort. My childhood home resides or stands in Quincy, MA. The home is full of comfort for me and my family. My home is your typical Cape Code style. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s gray in color with Maroon shutters. There is a 2 car attached garage. Flowers, bushes and other landscape surround the house. The front living room window is a large bay window that allows a lot of sunlight into the home whenRead MoreAnalysis Of My Papas Waltz By Theodore Roethke873 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfrom professors, scholars, and students alike, the imagery, syntax, and diction of the poem clearly support the interpretation that Roethke writes Ã¢â¬Å"My PapaÃ¢â¬â¢s WaltzÃ¢â¬ to look back at the fond memories he has as a child with his father. RoethkeÃ¢â¬â¢s poem was published in 1961, he was born in 1908 so at the time of this memory he was only about five or six years old. In discussions of Ã¢â¬Å"My PapaÃ¢â¬â¢s Waltz,Ã¢â¬ one controversial issue has been that RoethkeÃ¢â¬â¢s poem is about the abuse he suffered through as a child.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the TCP-IP Data Encapsulation and Decapsulation. Answer: Introduction: In any connection, a logical pattern or structure is followed, the layout that is usually followed when connecting computers in a given network is what is known as a physical or network topology (Zandbergen, 2017). In our discussion, we will highlight three patterns; star, bus and mesh topology Management and their corresponding advantages. A topology where each and every device is connected to a central device such as a switch (Certification kits, 2017). It is the most commonly used layout as its resilient and robust in its operations, example LAN connections in offices where PCs are connected to a central server. Advantages Its a simple structure that is very easy to install. Since each device is independent (connected to the central device) there are no disruptions when devices are removed. A simple overview structure that facilitates faults detection. Disadvantages It requires extensive resources to set up i.e. cables. Susceptible to central point failures. Overall its more expensive as compared to the other models. In this topology, all devices or nodes are connected to a central cable or even network (the bus). Essentially, this bus acts as the communication medium used by devices to communicate (Omnisecu, 2017). Example classroom connection of PC tapping from a central Ethernet line. Advantages Its usually very easy to connect a device to a linear connection e.g. a bus. As compared to the star topology, it requires fewer resources to install. Disadvantages The entire network is lost if the central cable fails. Its difficult to establish the root of a problem if the network fails. It cannot be used as a standalone option Mesh A redundant topology where all devices are connected to each other using multiple connections Management . As expected its a very expensive topology but it offers the best solution to a redundant and resilient connection requirements. Example the internet. Advantages Extremely resilient and robust, failed connections do not affect the network. Adding new devices has no effect on the overall network. It can handle large amounts of traffic. Disadvantages Its very hard to manage and maintain. Moreover, it requires a lot of capital investment (Nizam, 2014). First, the TCP/IP is a layered organisation of protocols that are used in communication today particularly on the internet. Its made up of different layers whose hierarchical protocols are made of interactive modules that perform specific functionalities. Therefore, each upper layer or protocol level is supported by the functionalities and services of more than one other layer. Now, encapsulation and decapsulation are a process that is used to package data for transmission or reception. Encapsulation and decapsulation A shown below, as data moves from the upper layer to the lower layers of the TCP/IP model, each layer adds a bundle of relevant control information. This control information is known as header files and at each subsequent layer will become the wholesome data where at lower layers is repackaged to form an additional header file. This supplementary data is used at the receiving end to extract data at the intended layer. Therefore, in reverse, decapsulation will unpack the data based on the control information provided (Omnisecu, 2017). While encapsulation and decapsulation involve the addition or removal of control information (header files), multiplexing and de-multiplexing involve the transmission of actual data. In fact, multiplexing is a method used to transmit multiple signals or information streams over a single communication channel. On the other hand, de-multiplexing is the process used to recover and separate these signals at the receiving end (Nizam, 2014). Therefore, encapsulation and decapsulation will involve control data while multiplexing and de-multiplexing will have the actual data or be it multiple instances of data (data streams). Given values: Bandwidth 6.8 MHz and SNR 132 Nyquist bit rate formula: 2 x Bandwidth x Log2 Signal level (L) Using Shannon capacity formula: Capacity (Shannon capacity) = bit rate = B x Log2 (1 + SNR) = B x Log2 SNR = 6800000 x Log2 132 Bit rate = 47901880.01 = 47.9019 MHz Signal can be obtained from Nyquist formula Signal level: 47901880.01 = 13600000 x Log2 L 3.52219706 = Log2 L, therefore, L = 23.52219706 = 11.48912529 Levels The OSI (Open systems interconnection) model is a standard created to outline the division of labour in a given communication network, this division will involve both software and hardware interactions (Burke, 2017). On the other hand, TCP/IP are network standards that are used to define communication over the internet. Basically, IP defines the method computers acquire data from each other in a routed network. While the TCP defines the channels used in the communication process. As a model, the OSI model defines a broad and wider variety of functionalities as compared to the TCP/IP model that only works when dealing with the internet. Moreover, the TCP/IP was created in the 1970s to solve specific problems and not functionalities. Therefore, at the time there were minimal variables to consider as compared to when the OSI model was developed. However, many communication protocols more so, those used on the internet such as HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol) are built on top of the TCP model. This outcome necessitates the need of the TCP/IP model which still stands in the way of the OSI model (Frenzel, 2013). Advantages and disadvantages of OSI model For one, the OSI model is a true generic model that distinguishes layers based on service, protocols Management and interfaces. Moreover, it has improved flexibility to link with any other protocol which makes it possible to support both connected and connectionless services. Finally, it has abstract operation principles thus changes in one layer never affect another. However, it does have some faults; for instance, it never defines any operation protocols. Furthermore, its difficult to introduce new protocols as it was created before the invention of protocols. In addition to this, there is extended interdependency between communication layers (Chaudhari, 2016). In general, the TCP/IP model works independently of the operation systems which makes it easy to establish connection regardless of the type of computer used. Secondly, it does support several protocols including crucial routeing protocols. Moreover, its a scalable architecture that can accommodate new concepts and standards. However, this model is also very difficult to establish due to its complex nature. Furthermore, other models such as IPX are faster as compared to it and finally, it has a higher overhead which requires extra transmission resources (Jayasundara, 2017). Values given: frame of size 5 million bits, 10 routers, queuing time of 3.5 s, processing time of 1.8 s, link length 1900 km, speed of light 2.2 x 108 m/s and bandwidth of 8 Mbps Therefore, from these parameters we can have: Delay/latency = Processing time + queuing time + transmission time + propagation time Therefore Processing time (for 10 routers) = 10 x 1.8 = 1.8 x 10-5 s Queuing time (10 routers) = 10 x 3.5 = 3.5 x 10-5 s Transmission time = Frame size/Bandwidth = 5000000/8000000 = 5/8, approximately 0.625 s Propagation time = Link length/speed of light = 1900000/2.2 x 108 = 8.636364 x 10-3 s Latency = 1.8 x 10-5 + 3.5 x 10-5 + 0.625 + 8.636364x10-3 = 0.63369 s Transmission time is dominant (bigger packet size). Whereas, Processing time and queuing time are negligible. Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) is a mail retrieving protocol that is used to access mailboxes hosted on remote servers. These servers usually retain all the users messages until they request for them. Furthermore, unlike IMAP4 it will only receive the sent messages (mail) which outline its limited capabilities. Nevertheless, in its operation, POP3 will use three different stages or sessions to execute its functionalities, they are Closed, Authorization, Transaction and Update (Netscape Communications Corporation, 1998). In general terms, POP3 is usually defined based on a finite state machine with each corresponding session moving between three general states during its lifetime. Authorization In this state, the server will provide a go-ahead signal known as a greeting to the client. This greeting will signal the servers intent to receive subsequent operations i.e. commands. In response, the client provides the necessary authentication procedures or information to allow it to access its designated mailbox. Transaction After providing the necessary authentication, the client is given authority to conduct various activities and operation within a given mailbox. These operations will include a listing of all available messages as well as the retrieving operation. Moreover, it will outline messages that are to be deleted. Update Finally, after being done with all the activities involved, the client will issue a quit command and as a result, the overall session will enter the update state automatically. In this state, the server deletes all messages designated for deletion. In conclusion, the session is terminated and the TCP connection set between the two (client and server) is also terminated. Closed this state exists just before the authorization state when no connection exists. Its closed because no operational activities are conducted and are in fact sometimes not considered an operational session or state (Kozierok, 2015). References Burke. J. (2017). What is the difference between TCP/IP model and OSI model? Tech target. Retrieved 01 May, 2017, from: https://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/answer/What-is-the-difference-between-OSI-model-and-TCP-IP-other-than-the-number-of-layers Certification Kits. (2017). CCNA Bus, Ring, Star Mesh Topologies. Retrieved 01 May, 2017, from: https://www.certificationkits.com/cisco-certification/ccna-articles/cisco-ccna-physical-networking-concepts-layer-1/ccna-bus-ring-star-a-mesh-topologies/ Chaudhari. A. (2016). 12 Advantages and Disadvantages of OSI model Layered Architecture. CSE stack. Retrieved 01 May, 2017, from: https://www.csestack.org/advantages-disadvantages-of-osi-model-layered-architecture/ Frenzel. L. (2013). Whats The Difference between the OSI Seven-Layer Network Model and TCP/IP? Electronic design. Retrieved 01 May, 2017, from: https://www.electronicdesign.com/what-s-difference-between/what-s-difference-between-osi-seven-layer-network-model-and-tcpip Jayasundara. M. (2017). Advantages and disadvantages of TCP/IP and OSI model. Retrieved 01 May, 2017, from: https://msccomputernetworks.blogspot.co.ke/2016/08/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-tcpip.html Kozierok. C. (2005). POP3 General Operation, Client/Server Communication and Session States. The TCP/IP guide. Retrieved 01 May, 2017, from: https://www.tcpipguide.com/free/t_POP3GeneralOperationClientServerCommunicationandSe-2.htm Netscape Communications Corporation. (1998). Receiving Mail with POP3. Messaging Access SDK Guide. Retrieved 01 May, 2017, from: https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19957-01/816-6027-10/asdk5.htm Nizam. A. (2014). Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Mesh Topology. Networking basics. Retrieved 01 May, 2017, from: https://www.networking-basics.net/mesh-topology/ Omnisecu. (2017). TCP/IP Data Encapsulation and Decapsulation. Retrieved 01 May, 2017, from: https://www.omnisecu.com/tcpip/tcpip-encapsulation-decapsulation.php Zandbergen. P. (2017). How Star, Bus, Ring Mesh Topology Connect Computer Networks in Organizations. Retrieved 01 May, 2017, from: https://study.com/academy/lesson/how-star-topology-connects-computer-networks-in-organizations.html
Saturday, April 4, 2020
Introduction The discovery of silver in the Spanish America changed the regional parts of the country. There were two main areas of silver mining that were explored in the sixteenth century.1 The regions included the northern and western parts of Mexico City; Zacatecas, Guanajuato, and the Potosi. Potosi was commonly referred to as the mountain of silver.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Silver In Spanish America specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It was situated in the Peruvian Andes. Zacatecas was predominantly an arid land with infertile soil and poor rain distribution. It drew a great deal of attention from many after the discovery of silver. There was a problem of labor shortage as the demand increased due to the high numbers of industries and mining companies. As the main administrators of the region, the Spanish crown was ready to receive tax from the locals. The cash collected was used to fund the Spanish ec onomy and also guard the vast empires all over the world in terms of military funding. The crown claimed all the land rights in the region, but as a way of attracting labor and investment from private individuals, it embarked on a state-directed means, and to some extent, private initiatives to lure a strong labor force and more investment. Capital was a necessity in funding all the mining activities and future explorations.2 Major Arguments- Silver in Spanish America Indians and Mestizo laborers were lured into the ridges from Mexico. They were offered relatively high wages and attractive incentives such as rewarding loyal workers in terms of promotion, medical cover, and being given time off to spend with their respective families. This ensured a large pool of workforce and improved the mining processes. African slaves also formed part of workforce in the region. And in this effect, the Trans Atlantic slave trade increased. This promoted the rise in the number of deaths as the sla ves brought with them new diseases. The slaves were also overworked to death. Influx of people into this region brought a lot of challenges in terms of population increase and insecurity issues. The large population required a lot of food to remain healthy. A settlement scheme was required to cater for the rising population in the area.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the New Spain, silver workers constructed a kind of aristocratic labor force with relatively greater privileges and freedom as compared to the Indians who were held in Encomianda. Accidents were also common in the mining sites. Therefore, the area was so dangerous; lives were lost.3 Ã¢â¬Å"HispanizationÃ¢â¬ also spread swiftly across the country and mostly among the Indians, Mezistos and the African workers in Zacatecas compared to anywhere else in New Spain. Therefore, Spanish workforce ensured the required jobs wer e done. The collective force created increased efficiency of the work and greatly improved the output. Common language meant an ease of communication. Directions and orders were clearly understood. It also became easy to solve disputes as both sides clearly expressed their feelings in a common language. The rising of industries in the region was also significant.4 This helped to cater for the vast populationÃ¢â¬â¢s needs of food and clothing. Therefore, textile industries mushroomed as well as food industries. This also involved the artisan work and craftwork. The diverse employment opportunities helped improve the living standards of the people in the region as they got regular income from the activities they engaged in. Trade also became another important event that resulted from the silver discovery. There was a need to have middlemen and suppliers of various goods. A great deal of consideration was given to the high number of deaths that were recorded due to new diseases that were introduced by the incoming population of foreigners from Europe. Europeans came to trade silver while some came with the intention of exploring the lands and the silver mines. This implied that they stayed there for long. Exploration took a lot of time and so interaction with the locals was inevitable. There also emerged a great interest in education as people developed an interest for record keeping.5 European traders and explorers also introduced some analytical techniques such as observing, analyzing, arranging and recording of issues. These were quickly adopted by the locals who saw the need to keep records of their activities and possessions. There also changed perception about wealth. Land was no longer the basis of determining a personÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth as other valuable things emerged such as precious metals like silver.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Silver In Spanish America specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Lea rn More Bibliography Bauer, Wise. The story of the world: history for the classical child. Charles City, VA: Peace Hill Press, 2003. Marichal, Carlos. Bankruptcy of Empire: Mexican Silver and the Wars between Spain, Britain, and France, 1760-1810. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Stein, Stanley. Silver, Trade, and War: Spain and America in the Making of Early Modern Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2000. Footnotes 1 Wise Bauer. The story of the world: history for the classical child (Charles City, VA: Peace Hill Press, 2003), 34. 2 Stanley Stein. Silver, Trade, and War: Spain and America in the Making of Early Modern Europe ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2000), 45. 3 Stanley Stein. Silver, Trade, and War: Spain and America in the Making of Early Modern Europe (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2000), 56. 4Ã Carlos Marichal. Bankruptcy of Empire: Mexican Silver and the Wars between Spain, Britain, and France, 1760-1810 (New York: Cambridge Uni versity Press, 2007), 98.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 5 Wise Bauer. The story of the world: history for the classical child (Charles City, VA: Peace Hill Press, 2003), 34. This essay on Silver In Spanish America was written and submitted by user Brody L. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Use of Technology to Improve Listening and Speaking Skills Free Online Research Papers I think nobody can deny that computers are in the center of our everyday life. Is your answer no? Then, just think again: Computers can divide/multiply or add numbers for us, we can draw money from computer- managed ATMs anytime we like, they work in our digital watches, in ABS ESP systems in our cars, in almost all of the control mechanisms of an aeroplane, in digital cameras, in cellular phones, in cd players, in remote controllers, in photocopiers, in satellite systems, so on and onÃ¢â¬ ¦. Do they sound familiar? If you use any of them, it means that you unconsciously Ã¢â¬Å"managedÃ¢â¬ by a computer system in your everyday life, because all the things I mentioned here have the same basic controlling system: computer. However, we also use computers Ã¢â¬â I mean Personal Computers- consciously and directly in banks, offices, schools, homes, and everywhere they are neededÃ¢â¬ ¦ We use computers in any cases, anyway, so this is the awful truth: We are totally surrounded by computers. Believe it or not, this is the reality. As regards education, -in our case it is foreign language education-, do you still believe that foreign language teaching learning process keeps unaffected by this silent computer revolution and is trying to accomplish its aim through so-called Ã¢â¬Å"traditionalÃ¢â¬ methods? I am giving the answer for you: Definitely not! Now, foreign language teaching methods are rapidly shifting from the traditional methods to the methods using computer applications and multimedia environments. These applications and environments are used extensively and successfully in reading, writing, listening and speaking practices by ESL teachers and students throughout the world. Whats more, the tools I mentioned here are truly helpful in practising the four skills of a language (reading, writing, listening and speaking) since these tools give language practisers almost exacly what they need; however, the main focus of interest in this article is developing listening speaking skills via internet mul timedia tools. Ã¢â¬Å"The internet is suitable place to practise languages as it offers the possibility, with the right software, of using images and audio resources at the same time, combining sounds and images as in communicative situations in the real world. It also provides users with a highly appealing and innovative formatÃ¢â¬ (Labayen et. al., 2005, p.9). From now on, I will try to show you what computers, internet and multimedia environments offer and how using these tools can help ESL students practising listening speaking throughout this text. Originally, media environmets high, fast and easy accessibility is what makes them an almost perfectly tailored solution to L2 effective and easy-to-reach learning practising resources. Using media environments is convenient in itself, indeed, because it gives us the possibility to choose what is appropriate for us at a certain period of time. Hoven (1999) asserts that computers allow L2 learners to determine the way and the pace that suits them and their needs. For example, when an ESL practiser is in class, s/he can have access to the internet, TV/video to watch movies or educative programmes in the target language, or study on a listening/speaking application using a computer on his/her own. Ehsani et. al. (1998) emphasize that by combining sound, vision, text, video and animation, this self-paced interactive learning environments create much more educative and creative classroom environments. Whats more, besides individual work, two or more people can work together in a group a ctivity which makes the process more interactive. Hoven (1999) believes that computers allow learners to add up what they know altogether more effectively and support peer correction. Whats more, Ellis et. al. (2005) suggest that technology has shaped the collaborative relationships between students and the way they interact with each other which eventually shape the learning opportunities in a classroom. Frith (2005) indicates that even though some L2 students are often required to speak in English in their social settings, they mostly enjoy listening especially when they are watching television or films. This observation emphasizes the use of multimedia environments in L2 classrooms. Whats more, Frith (2005) believes that video lessons can be very stimulating. This is what is needed to actualize real development. Besides, this is also an enjoyable part of listening development, because for many students, learning is associated with dull and boring clasroom activities. Unfortunately, in this case this generalization does not work, because L2 learners Ã¢â¬Å"do itÃ¢â¬ on their own in a convenient and different way. Verdugo et. al. (2007) assert that children actively take part in understanding the story because of the interactivity of internet based stories and this makes learning easy. This make the development of listening ability more effective and entertaining, but less effo rt-required. Consequently, this is what leads to real development and learning. The use of the internet in classroom environment is relatively a new phenomenon. However, seeing that it offers almost unlimited resources and choices, it has become widespread all around the world. At this point, the important thing is how to use it effectively in classrooms. Labayen et. al. (2005) emphasize that only when the sources are properly selected can the internet be useful in a learning environment. Then, another problem arises: How to select appropriate web sites to make use of them in a classroom to improve listening and speaking skills of students? Labayen et. al. (2005) show that the best way to find good web sites is to listen to a collegues suggestions who actually searched the site on his/her own or find a Ã¢â¬Å"seriousÃ¢â¬ web site which may actually help. When it comes to speaking practice via the internet, there are cheap, useful and wise solutions available. For example, Skype, MSN Messenger, GoogleTalk and similar VoIP applications can be used to connect a native speaker on the internet and realize a real-time conversation for free. Volle (2005) notes in her research that using MSN Messenger to conduct her online lessons, she observed the development in oral proficiency of her students. Even though VoIP conversations cannot make up for some features of a real face-to-face conversation, it is a precious opportunity for an L2 learner to use VoIP applications considering the hardships of finding a native speaker in the place where the learner lives. Labayen et. al. (2005) indicate that face to face communication has many advantages, so video-audio devices in CALL and on the internet are essential to teach oral skills. The use of computer and the internet in classrooms is essential to actualize development in listening comprehension and oral skills, because computer environment allows fast developmental assessment and fast update. Kruse (2004) indicates that the web content can be updated easily and the information can be in use immediately. So, this allows the lesson contents to be much more updated which may eventually cause high levels of awareness and success. Another point Kruse (2004) makes clear is that the cost of using computer systems and internet can be relatively low. Since many video/audio resources and VoIP applications are available on the internet and the maintenance costs are relatively low, this makes it a wise and effective solution to development of listening and speaking skills of L2 learners. As regards the interaction support of multimedia environments, people of the world are just one click away from each other as is conventionally said and this convenience makes the exploitation of such systems in language education vital as well. LeLoup Ponterio (2007) argue that preventing an L2 learner from being isolated, technology is the ultimate solution to those who lack the speech generated by a native speaker. To illustrate, videoconferencing technology is an example of technologic solutions to this isolation. It has many useful and effective uses in learning environments. In the figure below (see Fig. 1) you can see the use of the application in a classroom environment. Figure 1. The use of videoconference application in a classroom environment. (JFK Middle School, Massachusetts, USA) Cabaroglu Roberts (2006) argue that the use of VoIP applications in the classroom environment boosts the students communication skills and intercultural awareness besides enhancing motivation and classroom performance. For example, Skype application is increasingly used as a part of listening and speaking development process throughout the world today. Skype is an internet-based application that enables Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) calls (Jenks, n.d.). It has a useful user-interface that enables the users easy and effective use (see Fig.2). Whats more, there are similar online applications such as MSN Messenger and GoogleTalk and the likes. MSN Messenger also has millions of users worldwide and is used to improve speaking and listening skills by L2 students. Hampel et. al. (n.d.) assert that Skype and MSN Messenger increasingly create newer possibilities for the users. These softwares can also transmit video at the same time when the users speak to each other. So, this feat ure raises the level of interaction between practisers. Such level of interaction is also effective because of the highly useful features and user-interfaces of the applications. For the user-interface of MSN Messenger see Fig. 3. Figure 2. A demonstration of Skype software user-interface Figure 3. A demonstration of MSN Messenger application user interface. As an alternative, internet TVs and radios can be used to develop listening comprehension skills of an L2 student in an entertaining atmosphere; however, there is a relatively new emerging phenomenon: YouTube.com! This is a video upload-watch-download site and is increasing its popularity day by day. To have an idea how the site looks like see Fig. 4. According to statistics, the site has more than six million videos and the total time necessary to watch all these videos is 9.305 years! This huge video pool offers priceless opportunities to practice listening in an entertaining and convenient environment. LeLoup Ponterio (2006) allege that television/radio shows, news, documentaries, music videos and any videos beyond the imagination of people are just one click away. All you need is an internet connection. The rest is almost totally free; however, LeLoup Ponterio (2006) also suggest that videos should be carefully selected and prepared by the instructor to maximize comprehension and minimize frustration of learners and they hope that improvement in search tools for videos will allow the teachers to find the right video clip for supporting language class. Figure 4. YouTube.com is broadcasting many listening comprehension improving videos. As BBC has always been seen as a genuine source of Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ form of English, it cannot be disregarded for English Language Teaching. Being aware of its educative role, BBC has been publishing books, audio/video materials and so on. With the rise of the internet, BBC has prepared an English Learning Page which is one of the best of its kind. LeLoup Ponterio (2006) assert that the site gives ideas to the learner about material development and how to work efficiently with the aural input. Maintaining the publication at bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/ , BBC provides the visitors with quizzes, videos, podcasts and games as well as radio archives and voice recordings. As regards listening activities, there are many activities based on listening comprehension one of which is shown at Figure 5. Figure 5. A demonstration of BBC Learning English web site listening practice section Throughout the article, the entertaining aspect of using multimedia environments is constantly emphasized. So why is it so necessary? Because it makes learning easier and the most important of all it makes learning permanent. For example, cartoons may be a good means of teaching children foreign language and improve their comprehension and the things beyond it. Ã¢â¬Å"Although we usually associate cartoons with entertainment, in fact they can have many more serious applications. Children love cartoons as we all know from the fondness they have for the cartoon networks so why not make this attractive medium work for teaching and learning?Ã¢â¬ (Hobson, 2005, p.1) When it comes to adults, the use of movies have a great positive influence on their motivation and performance. Frith (2005) suggests that although some L2 students are often required to speak in English in their social environments, they predominantly enjoy listening especially when they are watching television or films . Apart from that, songs can be highly useful for developmental process of listening skills of an L2 student. Lynch (2007) suggests that because music is everywhere in human life to change or boost the emotions and feelings, we can include music and songs in language learning as well. Besides, karaoke is also beneficial in that it requires a recitation which eventually leads to improvement in speaking skill. Lastly, computer aided games can also have striking effects on an L2 students listening comprehension and sentence utterance. Keislar et. al. (1970) suggest that games , especially for children, are proved to be useful during their language education process. When games attractiveness unites with convenience and flexibility of computers systems, it may cause positive results as well. The aim of this article is to discuss some prominent benefits of using computer and multimedia environments to develop L2 students listening speaking skills and how the L2 students are affected from it. Jenks (n.d.) suggests that the internet and internet-based applications have great influence on us; however, since enough research hasnt been made over the issue, we are not certain 100 % about the outcomes of its use. Of course, we know that there are some limitations in its use as well; however, keeping it in our minds, ELT community should eliminate the limitations as much as they can and try to exploit its usefulness in every aspect of language teaching. To do this, much more research and experiments are required in the area. Hampel et. al. (n.d.) assert that finding an effective way to practise speaking is one of the biggest problems in both distant education and also online education. By determining the weak points of the method and fixing them, work force can be used more ef ficiently, more energy and material can be saved and more reliable and permanent development can be achieved. To achieve the better, we all should work very hard and do the best we can for it. As we are going to be totaly in cyber age in the near future, at least we are obliged to do it. REFERENCES Cabaroglu, N. Roberts J. (2006). Using SKYPE to Enhance the Education of Non- native Speaker Student-teachers: Ã¢â¬Å"I thought I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t, but now I know I canÃ¢â¬ Retrieved May 14, 2007, from drjonroberts.com Ehsani, F., Knodt, E. (1998). Speech Technology in Computer-Aided Language Learning: Strengths and Limitations of a New CALL Paradigm, Language Learning Technology Journal, Retrieved March 5, 2007, from: http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num1/article3/ Frith, J. (2005). Listening Using Authentic Video for Overseas Learners of English, Retrieved March 12, 2007, from www.developingteachers.com Hampel R., Stickler, U., Scott, P. (n.d.). Ã¢â¬ËEffective Online Communication?Ã¢â¬â¢ Spoken Interaction in a Virtual Learning Environment, Retrieved March 15, 2007, from: developingteachers.com Hobson, M. (2005). The Cartoon Network as a Teaching Aid?, Retrieved May 14, 2007, from animationschoolreview.com/sketches/2005/09/the- cartoon-network-as-a-teaching-aid.html Hoven, D. (1999). A Model For Listening and Viewing Comprehension in Multimedia Environments, Language Learning Technology Journal, Retrieved March 15, 2007, from http://llt.msu.edu/vol3num1/hoven/index.html Jenks, C. (N.D.). Skypecasts, p.1, Retrieved May 14, 2007, from open.ac.uk/baal-cupseminar2007-sole/p1_3.shtml Jeon, G., Debski, R., Wigglesworth, G. (2005). Oral ?nteraction around computers in the Project-oriented CALL Classroom, Language Learning Technology Journal, Retrieved March 5, 2007, from: http://llt.msu.edu/volnum3/jeon/ Keislar, E., Phinney, J. (1970). An Experimental Game in Oral Language Comprehension, Retrieved May 14, 2007, from http://eric.ed.gov Kruse, K. (2004). Using the Web for Learning: Advantages and Disadvantages, Retrieved May 14, 2007, from e-learningguru.com/articles/art1_9.htm Labayen, MJ., Estopanian, L., Olmos M. (2006). Speaking the Internet: an unlikely match?, p.9, Retrieved March 12, 2007, from www.developingteachers.com LeLoup, JW., Ponterio, R. (2007). Listening: Youve Got To Be Carefully Taught, Language Learning Technology Journal, Retireved May 14, 2007, from llt.msu.edu/vol11num1/net Lynch, L. (n.d.), Using Pop Songs to Improve Language Listening Comprehension Skills, Retrieved May 14th, 2007, from http://EzineArticles.com Verdugo, D., Belmonte, I. (2007). Using Digital Stories To Improve Listening Comprehension With Spanish Young Learners of English, Language Learning Technology Journal, Retrieved February 25, 2007, from llt.msu.edu/vol11num1/ramirez/ Volle, L. (2005). 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Friday, February 21, 2020
How does consumers' perception influence brand equity - Essay Example Advertising and marketing is all about conveying a single, unified message down to the target audience in a manner which meshes along well both with the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s budget as well as the aspirations and expectations of the people for whom the brand is being marketed or advertised. It is formed on the basis of psychological and physiological movements which are studied by the advertising and marketing people so that the client (the company people) also remain happy and their business flourishes in the longer run. However, to get this very message down to the intended people is not an easy job to start with. It needs to be very targeted, precise and significant for them in order for them to take notice and understand that the particular brand connects with them in the best and most easiest of manners possible and hence they should be the ones to buy it for themselves and for this reason satisfy their need or even please themselves more than they had already expected.It is a sure to ugh job for the people who have to extract the perfect message which needs to be sharpened again and again before it actually gets down to the right kind of people who will make the actual purchase and therefore the product will be sold in the end. However, on the flip side of the coin, this requires selling the product or the brand in the mind of the consumer before he actually decides to go and buy the very same. This is refereed as the pre-selling stage and advertising has got a lot to do with it.